What children of divorce most need is to maintain healthy and strong relationships with both of their parents, and to be shielded from their parents' conflicts. However, in some high conflict divorces, one parent the “programs” a child to denigrate the other, “targeted” parent, in an effort to undermine and interfere with the child's relationship with that parent. This is often a sign of a parent’s inability to separate from the couple conflict and focus on the needs of the child.
Such denigration results in the child’s emotional rejection of the targeted parent, and the loss of a capable and loving parent from the child's life. Psychiatrist Richard Gardner developed the concept of "parental alienation syndrome" 20 years ago, defining it as:
"...a disorder that arises primarily in the context of child custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child's campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It results from the combination of a programming (brainwashing) parent's indoctrinations and the child's own contributions to the vilification of the target parent."
The child’s views of the targeted parent are almost exclusively negative, to the point that the parent is demonized and seen as evil.
As Amy Baker writes, parental alienation involves a set of strategies, including
- bad-mouthing the other parent,
- limiting contact with that parent,
- erasing the other parent from the life and mind of the child (forbidding discussion and pictures of the other parent),
- forcing the child to reject the other parent,
- creating the impression that the other parent is dangerous,
- forcing the child to choose between the parents by means of threats of withdrawal of affection, and
- belittling and limiting contact with the extended family of the targeted parent.
There is now scholarly consensus that severe alienation is abusive to children and is a largely overlooked form of child abuse, as child welfare and divorce practitioners are often unaware of or minimize its extent. For the child, parental alienation is a serious mental condition, based on a false belief that the alienated parent is dangerous and unworthy. The severe effects of parental alienation on children are well-documented
- low self-esteem and self-hatred,
- lack of trust,
- depression, and
- substance abuse and other forms of addiction are widespread,
as children lose the capacity to give and accept love from a parent.
Self-hatred is particularly disturbing among affected children, as children internalize the hatred targeted toward the alienated parent, are led to believe that the alienated parent did not love or want them, and experience severe guilt related to betraying the alienated parent. Their depression is rooted in feelings of being unloved by one of their parents, and from separation from that parent, while being denied the opportunity to mourn the loss of the parent or to even talk about them. Alienated children also typically have conflicted or distant relationships with the alienating parent also and are at high risk of becoming alienated from their own children.
Every child has a fundamental right and need for an unthreatened and loving relationship with both parents. To be denied that right by one parent, without sufficient justification such as abuse or neglect, is itself a form of child abuse. Since it is the child who is being violated by a parent's alienating behaviors, it is the child who is being alienated from the other parent. Children who have undergone forced separation from one parent, in the absence of abuse are highly subject to post-traumatic stress, and reunification efforts in these cases should proceed carefully and with sensitivity.
Research has shown that many alienated children can transform quickly from refusing or staunchly resisting the rejected parent to being able to show and receive love from that parent, followed by an equally swift shift back to the alienated position when back in the orbit of the alienating parent. Alienated children seem to have a secret wish for someone to call their bluff, compelling them to reconnect with the parent they claim to hate. While children’s stated wishes regarding parental contact in contested custody should be considered, they should not be determinative, especially in suspected cases of alienation.
If you suspect that your child is being alienated or has been alienated, it is important to act quickly because the longer the alienation continues, the harder it is to reunify parent and child at a later date. If you would like further information about alienation and the options available to you, you can call Belinda on 01223 355912 and find out more.